Active Directory Integrated Squid Proxy

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# Short-Description: cyfin reporter initscript
# Short-Description: cyfin reporter initscript
# Author: James Robertson <>

Latest revision as of 11:57, 12 September 2017


[edit] Introduction

This document covers setup of a Squid Proxy which will seamlessly integrate with Active Directory using Kerberos, NTLM and basic authentication for clients not authenticated via Kerberos or NTLM. Authorisation to use the internet is managed by Security Groups in Active Directory by means of LDAP lookup. It is capable of using block and allow lists for site access and restrictions and an optional monitoring section that uses Cyfin Reporter for proxy monitoring.

This guide is an expansion and update to a guide I submitted on HowtoForge and contains some fixes to issues discovered and amendments to incorrect information.

I want to take the opportunity at the start of the guide to thank the Squid developers and the support I received on the mailing list in getting this guide completed. Squid Rules!

[edit] Example Environment

For this guide the following examples are utilised - you should update any HIGHLIGHTED TEXT sections with your clients domain, hostnames, IP's etc. where necessary.

Domain= example.local
Subnet =
Proxy Server
IP =
HOSTNAME = squidproxy.example.local
Kerberos computer name = SQUIDPROXY-K
Windows Server 1
IP =
HOSTNAME = dc1.example.local
Windows Server 2
IP =
HOSTNAME = dc2.example.local

[edit] Specifications

Most situations will require the proxy to be set up as Debian 6 virtual machine and this guide assumes the use of Debian, Our typical deployment is around 50 users, in this situation the following specifications are required.

  • 10GB Virtual Disk
  • 1 CPU
  • 1024MB RAM (this may be reduced if not using Cyfin Reporter)
  • 8GB / on EXT4
  • 2GB Swap
Tip: Consideration should be made for creating a separate volume to mount /opt. This is where Cyfin Reporter is installed.

[edit] Prerequisites

Client Windows Computers need to have "Enable Integrated Windows Authentication" ticked in Internet Options ⇒ Advanced settings.

[edit] DNS Configuration

On the Windows DNS server add a new A record entry for the proxy server's hostname and ensure a corresponding PTR (reverse DNS) entry is also created and works.

Check that the proxy is using the Windows DNS Server for name resolution and update /etc/resolv.conf accordingly.

Edit the file according to your network.

domain example.local
search example.local

Ping a internal and external hostname to ensure DNS is operating.

ping dc1.example.local -c 4 && ping -c 4
PING dc1.example.local ( 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from dc1.example.local ( icmp_req=1 ttl=64 time=0.028 ms
64 bytes from dc1.example.local ( icmp_req=2 ttl=64 time=0.017 ms
64 bytes from dc1.example.local ( icmp_req=3 ttl=64 time=0.013 ms
64 bytes from dc1.example.local ( icmp_req=4 ttl=64 time=0.009 ms

--- dc1.example.local ping statistics ---
4 packets transmitted, 4 received, 0% packet loss, time 2997ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.009/0.016/0.028/0.008 ms
PING ( 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from ( icmp_req=1 ttl=55 time=40.4 ms
64 bytes from ( icmp_req=2 ttl=55 time=42.2 ms
64 bytes from ( icmp_req=3 ttl=55 time=41.2 ms
64 bytes from ( icmp_req=4 ttl=55 time=42.0 ms

--- ping statistics ---
4 packets transmitted, 4 received, 0% packet loss, time 3003ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 40.497/41.511/42.248/0.685 ms

Check you can reverse lookup the Windows Server and the local proxy ip from the Windows DNS.

dig -x
; <<>> DiG 9.7.3 <<>> -x
;; global options: +cmd
;; Got answer:
;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: NOERROR, id: 23429
;; flags: qr aa rd ra; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 1, AUTHORITY: 0, ADDITIONAL: 0

;         IN      PTR

;; ANSWER SECTION:  1200    IN      PTR     dc1.example.local.

;; Query time: 3 msec
;; WHEN: Thu Dec 29 14:09:40 2011
;; MSG SIZE  rcvd: 81

dig -x
; <<>> DiG 9.7.3 <<>> -x
;; global options: +cmd
;; Got answer:
;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: NOERROR, id: 23429
;; flags: qr aa rd ra; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 1, AUTHORITY: 0, ADDITIONAL: 0

;         IN      PTR

;; ANSWER SECTION:  1200    IN      PTR     squidproxy.example.local.

;; Query time: 3 msec
;; WHEN: Thu Dec 29 14:14:33 2011
;; MSG SIZE  rcvd: 85

Warning: If either lookup fails do not proceed until fixed or authentication may fail.

[edit] NTP Configuration

Because Kerberos needs to have the time syncronised with Windows Domain Controllers for authentication we configure the proxy to obtain time from them.

vi /etc/ntp.conf

Locate the following section and update the ntp servers as required. If you have more than one Domain Controller or NTP Server you may add multiple lines.

# You do need to talk to an NTP server or two (or three).
#server ntp.your-provider.example
server dc1.example.local
server dc2.example.local

Restart and test NTP.

invoke-rc.d ntp restart

Run the following ntpq command, you should see output that refers to the Domain Controllers and other NTP Servers which are processed in the order that they appear in the conf file.

ntpq -p
     remote           refid      st t when poll reach   delay   offset  jitter
 dc1.example.loc .LOCL.           1 u   32 1024  377    0.463    1.874   9.718
 dc2.example.loc      2 u  202 1024  377    1.032  -20.487   9.975     3 u  200 1024  377   31.844    6.543   6.526      2 u  321 1024  377   68.729   -3.529   4.643     2 u  528 1024  377   30.292   -0.139  27.056
+cachens1.onqnet   2 u  197 1024  377   35.697    0.116   4.991
+ppp154-81.stati   3 u  542 1024  377   51.958    0.785  52.403
*warrane.connect    2 u  264 1024  377   15.539    0.921   4.655

[edit] Install and Configure Kerberos

Install Kerberos packages

apt-get install krb5-user libkrb53
Note: Just accept the defaults presented to any debconf dialog's presented as we are overwriting them.

Setup Kerberos.

cp /etc/krb5.conf /etc/krb5.conf.default
cat /dev/null > /etc/krb5.conf
vi /etc/krb5.conf

Edit the file replacing the variables with the client's domain and server.

Note: If you only have 1 Domain Controller remove the additional 'kdc' entry from the '[realms]' section, or add any additional DC's
Warning: Depending on your Domain Controller's OS Version uncomment the relevant Windows 200X section and comment out the opposing section.
    default_realm = EXAMPLE.LOCAL
    dns_lookup_kdc = no
    dns_lookup_realm = no
    ticket_lifetime = 24h
    default_keytab_name = /etc/squid3/PROXY.keytab

; for Windows 2003
    default_tgs_enctypes = rc4-hmac des-cbc-crc des-cbc-md5
    default_tkt_enctypes = rc4-hmac des-cbc-crc des-cbc-md5
    permitted_enctypes = rc4-hmac des-cbc-crc des-cbc-md5

; for Windows 2008 with AES
;    default_tgs_enctypes = aes256-cts-hmac-sha1-96 rc4-hmac des-cbc-crc des-cbc-md5
;    default_tkt_enctypes = aes256-cts-hmac-sha1-96 rc4-hmac des-cbc-crc des-cbc-md5
;    permitted_enctypes = aes256-cts-hmac-sha1-96 rc4-hmac des-cbc-crc des-cbc-md5

        kdc = dc1.example.local
        kdc = dc2.example.local
        admin_server = dc1.example.local
        default_domain = example.local

    .example.local = EXAMPLE.LOCAL
    example.local = EXAMPLE.LOCAL

[edit] Install Squid 3

We install squid now as we need the squid3 directories available. Squid configuration takes places after authentication is configured.

apt-get install squid3 ldap-utils

[edit] Authentication

The Proxy uses 3 methods to authenticate clients, Negotiate/Kerberos, Negotiate/NTLM and basic authentication.

Please read Negotiate Authentication and LDAP authentication on the squid wiki.

Some applications cannot use Kerberos and need to rely on NTLM (notably iTunes). A problem also exists in the order in which the authentication helpers are used, one example is when using IE on a non-domain computer it will fail to negotiate kerberos and will not failover to NTLM or basic authentication, this is regardless of the order in which the helpers are provided. Meaning the user will endlessly receive a popup window requesting authentication.

See this link and this link for further information.

Thankfully squid developer Markus Moeller created a negotiate wrapper around the Kerberos and NTLM helpers that resolves this.

[edit] Kerberos

Kerberos utilises msktutil an Active Directory keytab manager (I presume the name is abbreviated for "Microsoft Keytab Utility"). We need to install some packages that msktutil requires.

apt-get install libsasl2-modules-gssapi-mit libsasl2-modules

To make the following code easier to copy and paste run the following command, subsitute the MSKTARCH variable with i386 if necessary.

export MSKTARCH=amd64 

Then obtain the msktutil package and install it.

wget -O /var/cache/apt/archives/msktutil_0.4-2_$MSKTARCH.deb "$MSKTARCH.deb"
dpkg -i /var/cache/apt/archives/msktutil_0.4-2_$MSKTARCH.deb

Initiate a kerberos session to the server with administrator permissions to add objects to AD, update the username where necessary. msktutil will use it to create our kerberos computer object in Active directory.

kinit administrator
 Password for administrator@EXAMPLE.LOCAL:

It should return without errors. You can see if you succesfully obtained a ticket with:

Ticket cache: FILE:/tmp/krb5cc_0
Default principal: administrator@EXAMPLE.LOCAL

Valid starting     Expires            Service principal
01/09/12 09:01:49  01/09/12 19:01:53  krbtgt/EXAMPLE.LOCAL@EXAMPLE.LOCAL
        renew until 01/10/12 09:01:49

Now we configure the proxy's kerberos computer account and service principle by running msktutil (remember to update the highlighted values with yours).

Warning: There are 2 important caveats in regard to the msktutils --computer-name argument.
  1. --computer-name cannot be longer than 15 characters due to netbios name limitations. See this link and this link for further information.
  2. --computer-name must be different from the proxy's hostname so computer account password updates for NTLM and Kerberos do not conflict, see this link for further information. This guide uses -k appended to the hostname.

Execute the msktutil command as follows:

msktutil -c -b "CN=COMPUTERS" -s HTTP/squidproxy.example.local -k /etc/squid3/PROXY.keytab \
--computer-name SQUIDPROXY-K --upn HTTP/squidproxy.example.local --server dc1.example.local --verbose
Warning: If you are using a Server 2008 domain then add --enctypes 28 at the end of the command
msktutil -c -b "CN=COMPUTERS" -s HTTP/squidproxy.example.local -k /etc/squid3/PROXY.keytab \
--computer-name SQUIDPROXY-K --upn HTTP/squidproxy.example.local --server dc1.example.local --verbose --enctypes 28
Tip: an example of adding the proxy to an OU would be -b ou=MEMBER SERVERS,ou=EXAMPLE

Pay attention to the output of the command to ensure success, because we are using --verbose output you should review it carefully.

Set the permissions on the keytab so squid can read it.

chgrp proxy /etc/squid3/PROXY.keytab
chmod g+r /etc/squid3/PROXY.keytab

Destroy the administrator credentials used to create the account.


On the Windows Server reset the Computer Account in AD by right clicking on the SQUIDPROXY-K Computer object and select "Reset Account", then run msktutil as follows to ensure the keytab is updated as expected and that the keytab is being sourced by msktutil from /etc/krb5.conf correctly. This is not completely necessary but is useful to ensure msktutil works as expected.

Then run the following:

msktutil --auto-update --verbose --computer-name squidproxy-k
Note: Even though the account was added in capital letters, the --auto-update in msktutil requires the --computer-name to be lower case.

If the keytab is not found try adding -k /etc/squid3/PROXY.keytab to the command to see if it works and then troubleshoot until resolved or users will not be able to authenticate with Squid.

Add the following to cron so it can automatically updates the computer account in active directory when it expires (typically 30 days). I pipe it through logger so I can see any errors in syslog if necessary. As stated msktutil uses the default /etc/krb5.conf file for its paramaters so be aware of that if you decide to make any changes in it.

The SHELL and PATH variables are there to ensure cron runs properly, change this if you know what your doing.

crontab -e
# m h  dom mon dow   command
00 4  *   *   *     msktutil --auto-update --verbose --computer-name squidproxy-k | logger -t msktutil

Add the following configuration to /etc/default/squid3 so squid knows where to find the kerberos keytab.

vi /etc/default/squid3
export KRB5_KTNAME

[edit] NTLM

Install Samba and Winbind

apt-get install samba winbind samba-common-bin

Stop the samba and winbind daemons

invoke-rc.d winbind stop && invoke-rc.d samba stop

Copy the default smb.conf out of the way and edit the smb.conf

cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf.default
cat /dev/null > /etc/samba/smb.conf
vi /etc/samba/smb.conf
local master = no
workgroup = EXAMPLE
security = ads

winbind uid = 10000-20000
winbind gid = 10000-20000
winbind use default domain = yes
winbind enum users = yes
winbind enum groups = yes

load printers = no
printing = bsd
printcap name = /dev/null
disable spoolss = yes

Now join the proxy to the domain.

net ads join -U Administrator
Enter Administrator's password:
Using short domain name -- EXAMPLE
Joined 'SQUIDPROXY' to realm 'example.local'

Start samba and winbind and test acces to the domain

invoke-rc.d samba start && invoke-rc.d winbind start
wbinfo -t
checking the trust secret for domain EXAMPLE via RPC calls succeeded
wbinfo -a EXAMPLE\\testuser%'password'
plaintext password authentication succeeded
challenge/response password authentication succeeded

Set Permissions so the proxy user account can read /var/run/samba/winbindd_privileged

gpasswd -a proxy winbindd_priv

append the following to cron to regularly change the computer account password - internal note: Need to research if Samba does this automatically.

crontab -e
05  4  *   *   *     net rpc changetrustpw -d 1 | logger -t changetrustpw

[edit] Basic

In order to use basic authentication by way of LDAP we need to create an account with which to access Active Directory.

In Active Directory create a user called "Squid Proxy" with the logon name squid@example.local.

Ensure the following is true when creating the account.

  • User must change password at next logon Unticked
  • User cannot change password Ticked
  • Password never expires Ticked
  • Account is disabled Unticked

Create a password file used by squid for ldap access and secure the file permissions (substitute the word "squidpass" below with your password).

echo 'squidpass' > /etc/squid3/ldappass.txt
chmod o-r /etc/squid3/ldappass.txt
chgrp proxy /etc/squid3/ldappass.txt

[edit] Access Groups

Authorisation to use the internet is managed via Security Groups in Active Directory.

By default the squid account will not be able to query the "memberOf" attribute in AD. Select the top level of your active directory domain in Active Directory Users and Computers, Right click on it and choose properties, Security Tab, Add the squid user and give it read permissions (should happen by default) and allow it to read "This Object and all child objects" (Server 2003) or "This Object and all descendant objects" (Server 2008) by going into Advanced options.

Tip: If you do not see the Security Tab on the domain properties window, select View and tick Advanced features from the AD Users and Computers MMC

Create the following Security Groups and descriptions in AD and add users to the relevant groups. I suggest adding all your users to Internet Users Standard and then increasing or decreasing their access level by adding them to additional groups. The order of access is from least access to highest. So for example, if a user was a member of Blocked, Standard and Anonymous, Blocked takes priority and they would have no internet access.

Internet Users Blocked
Description: Members of this group have no internet access
Internet Users Restricted
Description: Members of this group can access the internet allowed sites only
Internet Users Standard
Description: Members of this group can access the internet except for blocked sites
Internet Users Exception
Description: Members of this group can access the internet with exceptions to blocked sites
Internet Users Full
Description: Members of this group have full internet access
Internet Users Anonymous
Description: Members of this group have full internet access and no access is logged

Create the associated files on the proxy. Squid will use these to lookup group membership for users.

echo 'Internet Users Blocked' > /etc/squid3/blocked_access.txt
echo 'Internet Users Restricted' > /etc/squid3/restricted_access.txt
echo 'Internet Users Standard' > /etc/squid3/standard_access.txt
echo 'Internet Users Exception' > /etc/squid3/exception_access.txt
echo 'Internet Users Full' > /etc/squid3/full_access.txt
echo 'Internet Users Anonymous' > /etc/squid3/anonymous_access.txt
Note: After making changes to group membership squid needs to be reloaded on the Proxy
invoke-rc.d squid3 reload

[edit] Configure Squid

[edit] Install negotiate_wrapper

Firstly we need to install negotiate_wrapper. Install the necessary build tools.

apt-get install build-essential linux-headers-$(uname -r)

Then compile and install.

cd /usr/local/src/
wget ""
tar -xvzf negotiate_wrapper-1.0.1.tar.gz
cd negotiate_wrapper-1.0.1/
make install

[edit] squid_ldap_group testing

Add testing section here for squid_ldap_group - Thanks Robert. e.g.

/usr/lib/squid3/squid_ldap_group -R -K -S -b "dc=example,dc=local" -D squid@example.local -W /etc/squid3/ldappass.txt -f "(&(objectclass=person)(sAMAccountName=%v)(memberof=cn=%g,ou=Security Groups,ou=MyBusiness,dc=example,dc=local))" -h dc1.example.local
EXAMPLE\Username Internet%20Users%20Standard
Connected OK

[edit] squid.conf

We then setup squid and it's associated config files.

cp /etc/squid3/squid.conf /etc/squid3/squid.conf.default
> /etc/squid3/squid.conf
vi /etc/squid3/squid.conf
Note: Update the cache manager variable with the emails address of the person in charge of the proxy

Study and update the following text carefully, replacing the example content with your networks configuration - if you get something wrong your proxy will not work.

Note: Although it may work, wrapping long lines with " \" in squid.conf is not a valid - don't do it.
### /etc/squid3/squid.conf Configuration File ####

### cache manager

### negotiate kerberos and ntlm authentication
auth_param negotiate program /usr/local/bin/negotiate_wrapper -d --ntlm /usr/bin/ntlm_auth --diagnostics --helper-protocol=squid-2.5-ntlmssp --domain=EXAMPLE --kerberos /usr/lib/squid3/squid_kerb_auth -d -s GSS_C_NO_NAME
auth_param negotiate children 10
auth_param negotiate keep_alive off

### pure ntlm authentication
auth_param ntlm program /usr/bin/ntlm_auth --diagnostics --helper-protocol=squid-2.5-ntlmssp --domain=EXAMPLE
auth_param ntlm children 10
auth_param ntlm keep_alive off

### provide basic authentication via ldap for clients not authenticated via kerberos/ntlm
auth_param basic program /usr/lib/squid3/squid_ldap_auth -R -b "dc=example,dc=local" -D squid@example.local -W /etc/squid3/ldappass.txt -f sAMAccountName=%s -h dc1.example.local
auth_param basic children 10
auth_param basic realm Internet Proxy
auth_param basic credentialsttl 1 minute

### ldap authorisation
external_acl_type memberof %LOGIN /usr/lib/squid3/squid_ldap_group -R -K -S -b "dc=example,dc=local" -D squid@example.local -W /etc/squid3/ldappass.txt -f "(&(objectclass=person)(sAMAccountName=%v)(memberof=cn=%g,ou=Security Groups,ou=MyBusiness,dc=example,dc=local))" -h dc1.example.local

### acl for proxy auth and ldap authorizations
acl auth proxy_auth REQUIRED
#   aclname             acltype  typename activedirectorygroup
acl BlockedAccess       external memberof "/etc/squid3/blocked_access.txt"
acl RestrictedAccess    external memberof "/etc/squid3/restricted_access.txt"
acl StandardAccess      external memberof "/etc/squid3/standard_access.txt"
acl ExceptionAccess     external memberof "/etc/squid3/exception_access.txt"
acl FullAccess          external memberof "/etc/squid3/full_access.txt"
acl AnonymousAccess     external memberof "/etc/squid3/anonymous_access.txt"
acl allowedsites        dstdomain "/etc/squid3/allowedsites.txt"
acl blockedsites        dstdomain "/etc/squid3/blockedsites.txt"
acl exceptedsites       dstdomain "/etc/squid3/exceptedsites.txt"
acl prioritysites       dstdomain "/etc/squid3/prioritysites.txt"

### squid defaults
acl manager proto cache_object
acl localhost src ::1
acl to_localhost dst ::1
acl SSL_ports port 443
acl Safe_ports port 80          # http
acl Safe_ports port 21          # ftp
acl Safe_ports port 443         # https
acl Safe_ports port 70          # gopher
acl Safe_ports port 210         # wais
acl Safe_ports port 1025-65535  # unregistered ports
acl Safe_ports port 280         # http-mgmt
acl Safe_ports port 488         # gss-http
acl Safe_ports port 591         # filemaker
acl Safe_ports port 777         # multiling http
http_access allow manager localhost
http_access deny manager
http_access deny !Safe_ports
http_access deny CONNECT !SSL_ports
http_access allow localhost

### http_access rules
# allow unrestricted access to prioritysites
http_access allow prioritysites
# enforce authentication, order of rules is important for authorization levels
http_access deny !auth
# prevent access to basic auth prompt for BlockedAccess users
http_access deny BlockedAccess all
http_access allow allowedsites
http_access deny RestrictedAccess all
http_access allow AnonymousAccess auth
http_access allow FullAccess auth
http_access allow ExceptionAccess exceptedsites auth
http_access deny blockedsites
http_access allow StandardAccess auth
http_access deny all

### logging
# don't log allowedsites, prioritysites, AnonymousAccess
access_log /var/log/squid3/access.log squid !allowedsites !prioritysites !AnonymousAccess

### squid Debian defaults
http_port 3128
hierarchy_stoplist cgi-bin ?
coredump_dir /var/spool/squid3
refresh_pattern ^ftp:           1440    20%     10080
refresh_pattern ^gopher:        1440    0%      1440
refresh_pattern -i (/cgi-bin/|\?) 0     0%      0
refresh_pattern .               0       20%     4320

Create the blocked and allowed sites files and some blocked and allowed sites to them.

touch /etc/squid3/allowedsites.txt
touch /etc/squid3/blockedsites.txt
touch /etc/squid3/exceptedsites.txt
touch /etc/squid3/prioritysites.txt

Some examples of entries (in the blockedsites) might be:

### How to add domains to this file
#   1.  Use only the domain name EXCLUDING the protocol prefix, i.e.
#       don't put "http://" at the start.
#   2.  Do not append a directory to the domain name, i.e. don't put
#       /index.php/path/blah.html at the end of the name.
#   3.  Prefix each entry with a single dot ".", this ensures a match of
# and
#   4.  If you need to match different top level domains like .com,
#       .net, for sites that have multiple top level domains to
#       the same website then add a seperate entry for each e.g.
Note: The prioritysites list would be websites such as Antivirus updates, Windows updates etc. These sites are completely open and unrestricted for all computers so the list should be managed carefully.

Then restart squid and check for any errors.

invoke-rc.d squid3 restart

Take a look at the logs /var/log/squid3/access.log and /var/log/squid3/cache.log as well to check squid is happy.

[edit] Auth Helpers

Create a section in reference to

And guidelines on testing using squidclient

[edit] Proxy Auto Configuration

Install Apache2 and the php5 module

apt-get install apache2 libapache2-mod-php5

Add a configuration to Apache2 to identify the file format of the proxy configuration script.

vi /etc/apache2/conf.d/wpad.dat
AddType    application/x-ns-proxy-autoconfig .dat

Create the wpad.dat file

vi /var/www/wpad.dat

Change the line starting with $proxy to your proxy's FQDN and add, remove lines and comments as desired for your network. If you need to allow certain hosts to access the internet direct (bypassing the proxy) update the address or range in the section "Hosts in this range are allowed direct", Some commented out examples are included for reference.

function FindProxyForURL(url, host)
    $proxy = "PROXY squidproxy.example.local:3128";

    // If URL has no dots in host name, send traffic direct
    if (isPlainHostName(host)) return "DIRECT";

    // URLs within this network are accessed direct
    if (isInNet(host, "", ""))        {return "DIRECT";}
    if (isInNet(host, "", ""))         {return "DIRECT";}
    if (isInNet(host, "", ""))             {return "DIRECT";}
    if (isInNet(host, "", ""))            {return "DIRECT";}

    // Terminal server uses the proxy
    // if (isInNet(myIpAddress(), "", "")) return $proxy;

    // Hosts in this range are allowed direct
    // if (isInNet(myIpAddress(), "", "")) return "DIRECT";

    //Return proxy for EVERYTHING else
    else return $proxy;

Restart Apache2

invoke-rc.d apache2 restart


Copy a logo file into /var/www/proxylogo.gif

Then update /etc/squid3/errorpage.css with the path to this file

sed -i 's/\/Artwork\/SN.png/squidproxy.example.local\/proxylogo.gif/g' /etc/squid3/errorpage.css
sed -i 's/padding-left: 100px/padding-left: 130px/g' /etc/squid3/errorpage.css

Reload squid3

invoke-rc.d squid3 reload

[edit] Group Policies

Warning: This section is in progress and is not complete.

Place the following file called ieauth.adm in C:\Windows\inf on your DC

CATEGORY !!Components
      POLICY !!enableNegotiatePolicy
         EXPLAIN !!enableNegotiateDesc
         KEYNAME "Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Internet Settings"
         VALUENAME "EnableNegotiate"
            VALUEON "1"
            VALUEOFF "0"

Components="Windows Components"
IE="Internet Explorer"
enableNegotiatePolicy="Enable Integrated Windows Authentication"
enableNegotiateDesc="Enable Integrated Windows Authentication"

[edit] WPAD DNS entries

Warning: Once you add the DNS entry as per the instructions below the proxy will become live. Stop at this point and check
  • Users have logged out and in again since you configured and restarted squid.
  • That client browsers are using Integrated Windows Authentication
  • That you have added all users to the relevant Internet Users security groups in AD
  • That all client browsers are set to use automatically detect proxy settings for internet access. Using group policy is a sensible option here or perhaps restrict outbound HTTP access on your firewall to weed out users without auto-detection configured.

Test access with Internet Explorer by Ticking "Use automatic configuration script" and insert http://squidproxy.example.local/wpad.dat in the address field and then access any websites.

Tail the proxy access logs to verify it is using the proxy.

tail -F /var/log/squid3/access.log

Good luck, I hope it works!

Warning: Stop here and troubleshoot if it is not working or else you will end up with a lot of angry users!

Add a CNAME record in DNS to point wpad.example.local to squidproxy.example.local

Note: Server 2008 and Server 2003 comes with a security measure that blocks wpad

To to remove wpad, but leave the Blocklist enabled, run Regedit and open the following location.


It's likely it wil have the entries of WPAD and ISATAP. Remove the WPAD entry and restart the DNS service for it to reload the Blocklist. You should then be able to resolve wpad.example.local

Then set your browser to use Proxy auto configuration. All modern web browsers follow the wpad standard and will attempt to lookup http://wpad.example.local/wpad.dat for their configuration information.

More information about WPAD can be found here.

Check your squid logs to see that clients are using the proxy.

[edit] Optional: List Editing

This allows designated staff to edit blockedsites.txt and whitelistsites.txt via a web browser.

cd /var/www/
wget ""
tar -xvzf  php_simple_fileed.tar.gz
mv /var/www/php_simple_fileed /var/www/lists
rm -f /var/www/php_simple_fileed.tar.gz
rm -f /var/www/lists/readme.txt
mv /var/www/lists/fileed.php /var/www/lists/index.php
sed -i 's/Simple File Editor/Proxy List Editor/g' /var/www/lists/index.php
sed -i 's/home\/dustin\/public_html/var\/www\/lists/g' /var/www/lists/index.php
ln -s /etc/squid3/blockedsites.txt /var/www/lists/
ln -s /etc/squid3/allowedsites.txt /var/www/lists/
ln -s /etc/squid3/exceptedsites.txt /var/www/lists/
chmod 666 /etc/squid3/blockedsites.txt
chmod 666 /etc/squid3/allowedsites.txt
chmod 666 /etc/squid3/exceptedsites.txt

If you trust user access to prioritysites then you can provide access to this list

ln -s /etc/squid3/prioritysites.txt /var/www/lists/
chmod 666 /etc/squid3/prioritysites.txt

Now add authentication to access the list page

sed -i '0,/AllowOverride None/! {0,/AllowOverride None/ s/AllowOverride None/AllowOverride AuthConfig/}' /etc/apache2/sites-available/default
invoke-rc.d apache2 restart

Now setup htaccess.

cat > /var/www/lists/.htaccess <<EOF
AuthType Basic
AuthName "Restricted Access"
AuthUserFile /etc/squid3/.htpasswd
Require user admin

Create a password

htpasswd -c /etc/squid3/.htpasswd admin
New password:
Re-type new password:
Adding password for user admin

alter the permissions on the file to the www-data user can read it.

chown www-data:www-data /etc/squid3/.htpasswd
chmod 0660 /etc/squid3/.htpasswd

Now configure incron to reload squid when the lists are updated.

apt-get install incron
echo root >> /etc/incron.allow
invoke-rc.d incron restart

Because editors like vim tend to delete the original file and move a temporary file into position after editing them I had to write this script to ensure incron continues to monitor the files we are interested in:

Create a file called /usr/local/bin/ and insert the following script, then make it executable.



for j in ${lists} ; do
    [ "${j}" == "${1}" ] && \
        { /usr/bin/logger -t squid3-inotify "${j} modified, reloading squid3..." ;
        /usr/sbin/invoke-rc.d squid3 reload ; }
chmod +x /usr/local/bin/

Edit incron to perform the reload.

incrontab -e
/etc/squid3 IN_CLOSE_WRITE,IN_MOVED_TO /usr/local/bin/ $@/$#

[edit] Optional: Install Cyphin Reporter

With the proxies we operate we need decent reporting. Programs like sarg, mysar etc. were not cutting it as decent reporting options for monitoring user internet usage. Cyfin Reporter by Wavecrest has proven to be a very capable and intuitive reporting system with plenty of features.

This is how to setup and install Cyfin Reporter with squid on Debian Squeeze.

The latest Cyfin Reporter version at the time of writing is version 8.5. Check the following locations depending on your architecture before you download and update the following commands where necessary.

So your install might look something like this...

cd /usr/local/src/
wget ""
gunzip c850linux32.bin.gz
chmod +x c850linux32.bin
Note: The Install Anywhere program screws around with PS1, so changing this for the current shell resolves the issue.
export PS1=">"

When prompted about the install path enter it as

     : /opt/wavecrest/cyfin

Accept everyting else as default

We need to create an initscript to start and stop cyfin

vi /etc/init.d/cyfin
#! /bin/sh
# Provides:          cyfin
# Required-Start:    $network $remote_fs
# Required-Stop:     $network $remote_fs
# Default-Start:     2 3 4 5
# Default-Stop:      0 1 6
# Short-Description: cyfin reporter initscript


# Load the VERBOSE setting and other rcS variables
. /lib/init/

# Define LSB log_* functions.
# Depend on lsb-base (>= 3.2-14) to ensure that this file is present
# and status_of_proc is working.
. /lib/lsb/init-functions

case "$1" in
        start)          sh /opt/wavecrest/cyfin/cyfin start
        stop)           sh /opt/wavecrest/cyfin/cyfin stop
        status)         sh /opt/wavecrest/cyfin/cyfin start
        restart)        sh /opt/wavecrest/cyfin/cyfin restart
        *)              echo "Usage: $SCRIPTNAME {start|stop|status|restart}" >&2
                        exit 3

chmod +x /etc/init.d/cyfin
update-rc.d cyfin defaults

Configuring Cyfin Reporter would require a brand new tutorial so here is the basics.

Access the configuration GUI via http://squidproxy.example.local:7999. The logon by default is "admin" for the username and "password" for the password.

  • Use the help in the GUI as the documentation is very good.
  • Check the FAQs at
  • Use the Quick Start menu to setup the basics, which are fairly straight forward.
  • Enable the Data Manager to import log files and setup a log file import schedule.
  • use the integration into Active Directory, you can use the squid account created for LDAP auth to also extract information from Active Directory.
  • Configure a schedule to import User lists from Active Directory.
  • You should ensure your users are part of a security group or distribution group in Active Directory and add these groups to Cyfin Reporter.
  • Assign the departments Manager as the recipient of email reports.
  • Setup access accounts for staff with permission to view the logs.

If you use Cyfin Reporter you need to account for additional memory usage so be sure to allocate enough resources to run it.

That concludes the documentation.

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